Randomised Controlled Trials

Comparing Low-Carb Diets Of Less Than 130g Carbohydrate Per Day To Low-Fat Diets Of Less Than 35% Fat Of Total Calories
With Participants Living With Type 2 Diabetes

Why are randomised controlled trials important?

Currently, a lot of nutrition science is based on observational data through epidemiology, which presents association but not causation. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard in evidence because they help establish cause and effect. When looking at nutrition science it’s important to acknowledge whether a study is based on association or causation.

Key
^ = Greater HbA1c Reduction
* = Significantly Greater HbA1c Reduction Between Groups

Time Frame & LinkLC HbA1c ChangeLF HbA1c ChangeParticipants (LC v LF)
1) 1 Year-8.8 mmol/mol^*-1.1 mmol/mol27 v 27
2) 3 Months-6.0 mmol/mol^-2.5 mmol/mol40 v 39
3) 24 Weeks-16.4 mmol/mol^*-5.5 mmol/mol21 v 29
4) 12 Months-0.2 mmol/mol^+2.6 mmol/mol47 v 49
5) 24 Months-1.1 mmol/mol-2.2 mmol/mol^28 v 40
6) 24 Months0.0 mmol/mol^+2.2 mmol/mol30 v 31
7) 24 Weeks-28.4 mmol/mol^*-20.8 mmol/mol46 v 47
8) 6 Months-4.0 mmol/mol^-1.0 mmol/mol29 v 30
9) 52 Weeks-10.9 mmol/mol-11.0 mmol/mol^41 v 37
10) 6 Months-7.6 mmol/mol^*0.0 mmol/mol30 v 32
11) 4 Months-9.8 mmol/mol^-4.4 mmol/mol40 v 36
12) 48 Weeks-7.7 mmol/mol^*+1.1 mmol/mol16 v 21
13) 6 Months-6.6 mmol/mol^*-2.2 mmol/mol12 v 12
14) 3 Months-6.5 mmol/mol^*0.0 mmol/mol16 v 18
15) 32 Weeks-8.7 mmol/mol^*-3.3 mmol/mol12 v 13
16) 12 Weeks-16.3 mmol/mol^*-0.7 mmol/mol21 v 12
17) 18 Months-17.8mmol/mol^*-11.1mmol/mol43 v 42
18) 12 Months-10.5mmol/mol^*-5.6mmol/mol76 v 64
Results16/18 LC Are > LF2/18 LF Are > LC593 (LC) v 594 (LF)
11/18 LC Are Sig.0/18 LF Are Sig.