Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs)

Comparing Low-Carb Diets Of Less Than 130g Carbohydrate Per Day To Low-Fat Diets Of Less Than 35% Fat Of Total Calories

Why are randomised controlled trials important?

Currently, a lot of nutrition science is based on observational data through epidemiology, which presents association but not causation. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard in evidence because they help establish cause and effect. When looking at nutrition science it’s important to acknowledge whether a study is based on association or causation.

Key
^ = Greater Weight Loss, * = Significantly Greater Weight Loss Between Groups

Time Frame & LinksLow-Carb (LC) Weight LossLow-Fat (LF) Weight LossParticipants (LC v LF)
1) 6 Months8.5kg^*3.9kg22 v 20
2) 12 Months4.3kg^2.5kg20 v 17
3) 6 Months5.8kg^*1.9kg43 v 36
4) 12 Weeks9.9kg^*4.1kg16 v 14
5) 12 Weeks6.2kg^*3.4kg22 v 23
6) 24 Weeks12.7kg^*7.2kg46 v 34
7) 30-50 Days5.5kg^*3.5kg28 v 28
8) 10 Weeks7.0kg^6.8kg15 v 16
9) 6 Weeks6.2kg^6.0kg16 v 16
10) 6 Weeks6.4kg^*4.2kg12 v 11
11) 3 Months3.55kg^*0.92kg40 v 39
12) 12 Weeks6.3kg^5.3kg49 v 47
13) 12 Months4.7kg^*2.2kg68 v 61
14) 8 Week7.8kg^*6.4kg48 v 45
15) 3 Months6.9kg^*2.1kg10 v 10
16) 24 Weeks11.1kg^*6.9kg21 v 29
17) 2 Years5.5kg^*3.3kg83 v 94
18) 8 Weeks7.5kg^*6.2kg52 v 47
19) 24 Weeks11.9kg^10.1kg45 v 43
20) 12 Weeks10.1kg^*5.2kg20 v 20
21) 12 Months14.5kg^11.5kg33 v 36
22) 13 Weeks13.2kg^*7.3kg18 v 15
23) 24 Months2.34kg2.97kg^31 v 30
24) 3 Months5.5kg^*2.6kg15 v 18
25) 12 Months5.6kg^*1.4kg59 v 60
26) 4 Months9.79kg^*6.14kg20 v 20
27) 8 Weeks8.4kg^*6.7kg32 v 28
28) 12 Months3.1kg3.1kg47 v 49
29) 2 Years6.34kg7.37kg^154 v 153
30) 24 Months1.5kg^0.2kg28 v 40
31) 12 Weeks6.8kg^5.2kg18 v 15
32) 12 Weeks8.0kg^*6.4kg24 v 21
33) 1 Year13.7kg13.7kg55 v 51
34) 1 Year5.1kg^3.1kg62 v 64
35) 48 Weeks11.37kg^9.62kg57 v 65
36) 3 Months5.0kg^3.7kg63 v 66
37) 24 Weeks12.0kg^11.5kg46 v 47
38) 6 Months6.0kg^5.9kg57 v 174
39) 1 Year2.1kg3.0kg^40 v 40
40) 6 Weeks6.1kg^*3.9kg15 v 15
41) 24 Weeks7.1kg^*4.7kg28 v 30
42) 3 Months7.6kg^*4.3kg22 v 19
43) 6 Months4.3kg^4.0kg29 v 30
44) 6 Months2.6kg^1.4kg12 v 12
45) 8 Weeks7.4kg^6.5kg12 v 12
46) 6 Months6.8kg^5.6kg53 v 57
47) 3 Months3.4kg4.1kg^150 v 150
48) 12 Months11.8kg^*6.9kg55 v 55
49) 1 Year2.9kg3.7kg^30 v 30
50) 6 Months8.5kg^*3.5kg43 v 35
51) 52 Week9.8kg10.1kg^41 v 37
52) 6 Months9.1kg^8.9kg25 v 24
53) 6 Months8.0kg^5.7kg21 v 17
54) 6 Months1.6kg^*0.6kg30 v 32
55) 4 Months14.7kg^*5.05kg45 v 40
56) 12 Weeks11.9kg12.2kg^20 v 18
57) 32 Weeks12.7kg^*3.0kg12 v 13
58) 18 Months5.0kg^2.4kg32 v 33
59) 10 Weeks25.8kg^*2.08kg10 v 10
60) 12 Months7.9kg^*1.7kg16 v 18
61) 2 Years6.8kg^6.6kg33 v 28
62) 12 Months6.0kg^5.3kg304 v 305
63) 12 Weeks9.5kg^*2.0kg21 v 12
64) 12 Weeks13.72kg^*0.77kg46 v 45
65) 18 Months2.76kg^*0.71kg43 v 42
66) 8 Weeks5.9kg^*0.9kg19 v 15
67) 12 Months9.3kg^*5.8kg76 v 64
68) 6 Months5.1kg^*0.2kg49 v 22
69) 12 Weeks10.4kg^*+0.5kg98 v 90
70) 6 Months4.1kg^1.0kg60 v 61
71) 4 Months8.8kg^*4.7kg45 v 49
Results:62/71 LC Are > LF7/71 LF Are > LC3030(LC) v 2062(LF)
39/71 LC Are Sig.0/71 LF Are Sig.2 RCTs Are Equal